Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast
Results 1 to 20 of 30

Thread: Rare TB Strain

  1. #1
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Location
    Van down by the river
    Posts
    22,467
    Post Thanks / Like

    Rare TB Strain

    [url]http://www.startribune.com/484/story/1213496.html[/url]

    [QUOTE]A man with a rare and dangerous form of tuberculosis ignored doctors' advice and took two trans-Atlantic flights, leading to the first U.S. government-ordered quarantine since 1963, health officials said Tuesday.
    The man, whom officials did not identify, is at Atlanta's Grady Memorial Hospital in respiratory isolation.

    He was potentially infectious during the flights, so officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended exams for cabin crew members on those flights, as well as passengers sitting near him. CDC officials did not release row numbers but said the airlines were working with officials to contact passengers.

    The infected man flew from Atlanta to Paris on May 12 aboard Air France Flight 385. He returned to North America on May 24 aboard Czech Air Flight 0104 from Prague to Montreal. The man then drove into the United States at the Champlain, N.Y., border crossing.

    Tests indicated the amount of TB bacteria in him was low, so passengers are not considered to be at high risk of infection, said Dr. Martin Cetron, director of the CDC's division of global migration and quarantine. Tuberculosis is caused by germs that are spread from person to person through the air.

    The man had been told in early May that he had a form of TB that was resistant to first-line antibiotics and was advised not to go to Europe. When a CDC official reached him in Rome, "he was told in no uncertain terms not to take a flight back" to the United States, Cetron said.

    Officials said they don't know how the Georgia man was infected. They said he is not facing prosecution. [/QUOTE]

    Not facing prosecution :confused: This guy is a complete jacka**. He has TB, is told not to fly, does it anyway numerous times and skirts the US no-fly list by landing in Canada and driving across the border.

  2. #2
    Veteran
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Posts
    468
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=PlumberKhan][url]http://www.startribune.com/484/story/1213496.html[/url]



    Not facing prosecution :confused: This guy is a complete jacka**. He has TB, is told not to fly, does it anyway numerous times and skirts the US no-fly list by landing in Canada and driving across the border.[/QUOTE]

    I hate people like this. Reading about this is like reading about idiots giving their kids PBJ sandwiches to get a bear to come to them for a photo shot. Happens all the time in national forests and parks. No charges of negligence on the parents for getting their kids mauled by a 400lb+ bear.

    These types of people should get the same sentence as if somebody purposefully injected the passengers with TB or threw a kid into a bear exhibit at the zoo.

    We should be allowed to legally discriminate against stupid people. Courts can't protect us against them. Their designed to protect us against murderers, rapists, thieves, and so on. Hell, at least I feel safe in a crowd of people. No criminal is stupid enough to do me serious harm there. I can also avoid potentially dangerous areas like dark alleys.

    However, this is not the case with stupid people. They'll strike anywhere and at anytime. Standing in a crowd... no, problem. Got a cell phone and make up kit. Crash... you're dead. Wanna avoid the dangers of driving across country by taking a flight. No problem... heres some TB for the ride.

    F*ckers... 24/7 and in any situation a stupid person will strike. Oops... I didn't realize me having TB and being in a closed environment like a plane with an internal and continuous circulating air system would be a problem.

  3. #3
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    On some beach... somewhere...
    Posts
    3,735
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=PlumberKhan][url]http://www.startribune.com/484/story/1213496.html[/url]



    Not facing prosecution :confused: This guy is a complete jacka**. He has TB, is told not to fly, does it anyway numerous times and skirts the US no-fly list by landing in Canada and driving across the border.[/QUOTE]


    What really amazes me, is that this POS's new father-in-law works for the CDC.

    Jerkoff.

  4. #4
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    Boston
    Posts
    11,692
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=finlee17]I hate people like this. Reading about this is like reading about idiots giving their kids PBJ sandwiches to get a bear to come to them for a photo shot. Happens all the time in national forests and parks. No charges of negligence on the parents for getting their kids mauled by a 400lb+ bear.

    These types of people should get the same sentence as if somebody purposefully injected the passengers with TB or threw a kid into a bear exhibit at the zoo.

    We should be allowed to legally discriminate against stupid people. Courts can't protect us against them. Their designed to protect us against murderers, rapists, thieves, and so on. Hell, at least I feel safe in a crowd of people. No criminal is stupid enough to do me serious harm there. I can also avoid potentially dangerous areas like dark alleys.

    However, this is not the case with stupid people. They'll strike anywhere and at anytime. Standing in a crowd... no, problem. Got a cell phone and make up kit. Crash... you're dead. Wanna avoid the dangers of driving across country by taking a flight. No problem... heres some TB for the ride.

    F*ckers... 24/7 and in any situation a stupid person will strike. Oops... I didn't realize me having TB and being in a closed environment like a plane with an internal and continuous circulating air system would be a problem.[/QUOTE]

    Well, you could perhaps argue for criminal negligence, but it's a tricky area. Many states have criminal negligence statutes which speak only to death caused by negligence and do not contemplate only [I]injuries [/I] caused by negligence, because of the degree differences involved in criminal and/or gross as opposed to ordinary negligence. In fact, a few years ago in Rhode Island the band Great White held a concert at some small dive bar with low ceilings and their pyro-tehcnic show ignited a blaze and killed people and injured others. The club was in violation of fire safety codes and the family members of the deceased pursued criminal negligence charges against the club owners and the band crew head, but the injured people could not, because RI's statutes do not include injuries caused by negligence, and so these unfortunate souls are going the civil route. (These are real injuries, too, not just a few burns...but massivem severe burns.)

    Most criminal negligence cases involve doctors and malpractice and the worry about an expansion of these statutes to cover injuries is that it could potentially put any doctor who injures a patient during even a competent surgery in an actionable position if written stupidly. About a dozen states have statutes which speak to injuries and not only death, I believe - but the specific language is key.

    Also, this man is not a medical professional and he may not be responsible as we think he should be to know [I]exactly[/I] how contagious his sickness was/is and I understand that he may not have known exactly the extent of his sickness at the time he boarded the initial plane(?). I know he boarded the flights AMA and that ordinary negligence [I]may[/I] apply, but the issue is whether or not boarding that plane has any elements of scienter or malicious intent and for that, I'd imagine you'd have to be able to prove that he fully understood the extent of his sickness and a non-medical professional like him may not be held to as high a standard in law as we think they should be, common-sense wise, in terms of whether or not his actions demonstrated a lack of reasonable care which is tantamount to criminal negligence the way it would be if this guy was a medical doctor who allowed a patient with this particular strain of TB to go off and travel around - in that case, the doctor would obviously be negligent. But maybe this guy is too, I don't know all of the myriad particulars involved here and am just riffing....

    But someone could always pursue a civil case against him. The problem, however, is you have to be able to demonstrate that an injury has occured. Where is the injury and what laws apply if the injury ocurred in the air, midflight? You may have to pinpoint exactly when and where the injury ocurred (or not, I don't know?) to know exactly what laws apply...it may not be as easy as saying that he boarded a plane in Georgia, so Georgia's statutes apply and that he was criminally, as opposed to ordinarily, negligent (or reckless).

    In most cases like this, the law is the problem...they usually are narrower than we think and the risk of expanding them in a reactionary fashion after high-profile stories like this can often have unanticipated negative consequences down the line.

    One could perhaps try to get him to pony up for the resources spent dealing with this issue, the way that people wanted to go after that Runaway Bride whose departure and 'unreasonable' lack of communication made everyone close to her report her as missing and prompted a wide and expensive search...but that is a tricky issue which may have unintended negative consequences if expanded too....(but I digress).

    But you are right about stupidity. "[I]Against stupidity, even the God's themselves struggle in vain[/I]." - old proverb
    Last edited by jets5ever; 05-31-2007 at 05:32 PM.

  5. #5
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Apr 2003
    Location
    Philly
    Posts
    38,782
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=JetFanTransplant]What really amazes me, is that this POS's new father-in-law works for the CDC.

    Jerkoff.[/QUOTE]

    not really any surprise the guy is a lawyer.

  6. #6
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Jan 2006
    Location
    Long Island & Section 337
    Posts
    4,859
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=bitonti]not really any surprise the guy is a lawyer.[/QUOTE]
    Personal injury lawyer to boot, too.

  7. #7
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Posts
    15,550
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=JetFanTransplant]What really amazes me, is that this POS's new father-in-law works for the CDC.

    Jerkoff.[/QUOTE]
    yeah, i wonder how he got it... they need to make sure the CDC is air tight

  8. #8
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Posts
    15,550
    Post Thanks / Like
    Another positive to illegal immigrants... all of those wonderful infectious diseases they bring with them

  9. #9
    Veteran
    Charter JI Member

    Join Date
    May 1999
    Posts
    1,547
    Post Thanks / Like
    When I first heard this story I was pretty upset at how this guy seemingly and selfishly put so many others at risk.

    But, I'm a little ignorant about TB so I decided it was a good time to learn more about it and try to understand it better.

    I'm no doctor, this is just my understanding, so if anyone out there is more knowledgeable about TB, please feel free to correct me.

    As I understand it, there is TB disease, and latent TB infection. In TB disease, there is fever, coughing, chest pain, etc. This is extremely contagious to people who spend time with the infected. In latent TB infection, the bacteria is present but the individual is not sick and has no symptoms and is not contagious. Not everyone with TB infection develops TB disease, but it needs to be treated so that the disease does not develop.

    From what we're hearing, this man is not sick or showing symptoms of TB disease, so I would hope that he has not been a risk to anyone.

    As for his father-in-law, an apparent expert on TB, I'm sure he is the one who encouraged his son-in-law to return here for treatment as opposed to being treated in Italy. He was probably also confident that his son-in-law was of no risk to the public.

    Now, as far as the security problems, no comment. ;) But it probably worked out for the best for this man.

  10. #10
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Jan 2006
    Location
    Long Island & Section 337
    Posts
    4,859
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=Lady Jet]When I first heard this story I was pretty upset at how this guy seemingly and selfishly put so many others at risk.

    But, I'm a little ignorant about TB so I decided it was a good time to learn more about it and try to understand it better.

    I'm no doctor, this is just my understanding, so if anyone out there is more knowledgeable about TB, please feel free to correct me.

    As I understand it, there is TB disease, and latent TB infection. In TB disease, there is fever, coughing, chest pain, etc. This is extremely contagious to people who spend time with the infected. In latent TB infection, the bacteria is present but the individual is not sick and has no symptoms and is not contagious. Not everyone with TB infection develops TB disease, but it needs to be treated so that the disease does not develop.

    From what we're hearing, this man is not sick or showing symptoms of TB disease, so I would hope that he has not been a risk to anyone.

    As for his father-in-law, an apparent expert on TB, I'm sure he is the one who encouraged his son-in-law to return here for treatment as opposed to being treated in Italy. He was probably also confident that his son-in-law was of no risk to the public.

    Now, as far as the security problems, no comment. ;) But it probably worked out for the best for this man.[/QUOTE]
    No, it sounds like he has an active TB infection.
    Very often people at risk may undergo a "PPD skin test" which based upon the size of skin reaction can mean that someone has been exposed to TB. The next step is a chest x-ray. If normal the patient may be treated "prophylactically" for a period of time with daily anti-TB medication to prevent a full-blown TB infection.
    If the chest x-ray is positive for active TB, the treatment is more intense and public health authorities become involved. That seems to be what happened here. To travel like he did in this case in my opinion would be irresponsible.

  11. #11
    All Pro
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Posts
    1,234
    Post Thanks / Like
    Andrew Speaker found out he had TB in January from a chest x-ray he had taken for a bruised rib. How long would it take to diagnose the type/strain of TB he had and know if he was contagious? I'm trying to figure out why it became such a priority to the CDC to quarantine him after he flew to Europe.



    Quarantined TB Patient: 'I Hope They Forgive Me'
    (06/01/07 -- DENVER)


    Speaker, 31, said he, his doctors and the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all knew he had TB before he flew to Europe for his wedding and honeymoon last month. But he said he was advised that he wasn't contagious or a danger to anyone. Officials said they would rather he didn't fly but no one ordered him not to, he said.

    He said his father, also a lawyer, taped that meeting.

    "My father said, 'OK, now are you saying, prefer not to go on the trip because he's a risk to anybody, or are you simply saying that to cover yourself?' And they said, we have to tell you that to cover ourself, but he's not a risk."

    Dr. Steven Katkowsky, director of the Fulton County Department of Health & Wellness, said he was told in early May not to travel to Europe: "He was told traveling is against medical advice." Dr. Martin Cetron, director of the CDC's division of global migration and quarantine, said once Speaker was in Europe, "He was told in no uncertain terms not to take a flight back."
    Last edited by chicadeel; 06-01-2007 at 11:50 AM.

  12. #12
    Veteran
    Charter JI Member

    Join Date
    May 1999
    Posts
    1,547
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=HDCentStOhio]No, it sounds like he has an active TB infection.
    Very often people at risk may undergo a "PPD skin test" which based upon the size of skin reaction can mean that someone has been exposed to TB. The next step is a chest x-ray. If normal the patient may be treated "prophylactically" for a period of time with daily anti-TB medication to prevent a full-blown TB infection.
    If the chest x-ray is positive for active TB, the treatment is more intense and public health authorities become involved. That seems to be what happened here. To travel like he did in this case in my opinion would be irresponsible.[/QUOTE]

    Yeah, I'm familiar with the skin tests. They prick your arm and then send you home with a paper with "bumps" that show you the levels of reaction and which you should be concerned about. ;)

    Hey, I'm pretty sure I've read here that you're a doctor, so I appreciate your response. I'm a little unclear as to how active his infection is. I understand that his TB infection was initially found, somewhat by sheer luck, after he had a xray for a rib injury. However, the Doctors in Denver are saying that he is not currently ill (no fever, no coughing) and therefore at little to no risk to the public.

    I feel the biggest concerns, are the risk of fatality to this man, and probably more important, who did he receive the infection from. That person is presently walking around and spreading this infection.

  13. #13
    Veteran
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Posts
    468
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=jets5ever]Well, you could perhaps argue for criminal negligence, but it's a tricky area. Many states have criminal negligence statutes which speak only to death caused by negligence and do not contemplate only [I]injuries [/I] caused by negligence, because of the degree differences involved in criminal and/or gross as opposed to ordinary negligence. In fact, a few years ago in Rhode Island the band Great White held a concert at some small dive bar with low ceilings and their pyro-tehcnic show ignited a blaze and killed people and injured others. The club was in violation of fire safety codes and the family members of the deceased pursued criminal negligence charges against the club owners and the band crew head, but the injured people could not, because RI's statutes do not include injuries caused by negligence, and so these unfortunate souls are going the civil route. (These are real injuries, too, not just a few burns...but massivem severe burns.)

    Most criminal negligence cases involve doctors and malpractice and the worry about an expansion of these statutes to cover injuries is that it could potentially put any doctor who injures a patient during even a competent surgery in an actionable position if written stupidly. About a dozen states have statutes which speak to injuries and not only death, I believe - but the specific language is key.

    Also, this man is not a medical professional and he may not be responsible as we think he should be to know [I]exactly[/I] how contagious his sickness was/is and I understand that he may not have known exactly the extent of his sickness at the time he boarded the initial plane(?). I know he boarded the flights AMA and that ordinary negligence [I]may[/I] apply, but the issue is whether or not boarding that plane has any elements of scienter or malicious intent and for that, I'd imagine you'd have to be able to prove that he fully understood the extent of his sickness and a non-medical professional like him may not be held to as high a standard in law as we think they should be, common-sense wise, in terms of whether or not his actions demonstrated a lack of reasonable care which is tantamount to criminal negligence the way it would be if this guy was a medical doctor who allowed a patient with this particular strain of TB to go off and travel around - in that case, the doctor would obviously be negligent. But maybe this guy is too, I don't know all of the myriad particulars involved here and am just riffing....

    But someone could always pursue a civil case against him. The problem, however, is you have to be able to demonstrate that an injury has occured. Where is the injury and what laws apply if the injury ocurred in the air, midflight? You may have to pinpoint exactly when and where the injury ocurred (or not, I don't know?) to know exactly what laws apply...it may not be as easy as saying that he boarded a plane in Georgia, so Georgia's statutes apply and that he was criminally, as opposed to ordinarily, negligent (or reckless).

    In most cases like this, the law is the problem...they usually are narrower than we think and the risk of expanding them in a reactionary fashion after high-profile stories like this can often have unanticipated negative consequences down the line.

    One could perhaps try to get him to pony up for the resources spent dealing with this issue, the way that people wanted to go after that Runaway Bride whose departure and 'unreasonable' lack of communication made everyone close to her report her as missing and prompted a wide and expensive search...but that is a tricky issue which may have unintended negative consequences if expanded too....(but I digress).

    But you are right about stupidity. "[I]Against stupidity, even the God's themselves struggle in vain[/I]." - old proverb[/QUOTE]


    WTF, J5EÖ Iím not reading all that. ;)

    That proverb is good oneÖ

    I never thought about criminal negligence vs. unintentional negligence. I just assumed they were both the same. Negligence is usually unintentional. Well, unless you just say f*ck it, when I rob this bank it doesnít matter whether nobody gets hurt or five people die. SoÖ I see what youíre saying. Thatís a different sort of negligence than me dropping a concealed weapon at the bank and it goes off injuring someone.

    However, I though our law was established on the idea of the contract. An assumed contract that we have with individuals and society. At least thatís what Iíve learned from Judge Judy. Iím under the impression if I know that I have a contagious disease, like TB, it is in public interest that I donít go around willy-nilly. I have to make some maximum effort on my part to ensure that I uphold my end of the bargain. And if I donít, then I can be held responsible for jeopardizing others by not looking after the public interest.

    Granted there is no written contract, but I thought there was an assumed contract we have with the public. Thereís no written contract between parents and their children. But I thought that there is some assumed contract between them. So, when mom or dad doesnít do whatís in the best interest of the child theyíre held responsible even though there is no specific law written for such an act.

    Also, by what you have written, it seems like technicalities seem to be a problem. Thatís too bad. No wonder legislators have such a hard time keeping up with crime. It seems much easier for lawyers to focus on the technicalities of law and not the spirit or intent.

    Then againÖ Iíve never taken a class dealing with law. I just thought the contract was central to our concept of law.

  14. #14
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Jan 2006
    Location
    Long Island & Section 337
    Posts
    4,859
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=Lady Jet]Yeah, I'm familiar with the skin tests. They prick your arm and then send you home with a paper with "bumps" that show you the levels of reaction and which you should be concerned about. ;)

    Hey, I'm pretty sure I've read here that you're a doctor, so I appreciate your response. I'm a little unclear as to how active his infection is. I understand that his TB infection was initially found, somewhat by sheer luck, after he had a xray for a rib injury. However, the Doctors in Denver are saying that he is not currently ill (no fever, no coughing) and therefore at little to no risk to the public.

    I feel the biggest concerns, are the risk of fatality to this man, and probably more important, who did he receive the infection from. That person is presently walking around and spreading this infection.[/QUOTE]
    He had spent extensive time in Vietnam, that is most likely where he got it. He has a resistant form apparently to many of the typically used medications, that is what is dangerous here.

  15. #15
    Veteran
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Posts
    468
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=HDCentStOhio]He had spent extensive time in Vietnam, that is most likely where he got it. He has a resistant form apparently to many of the typically used medications, that is what is dangerous here.[/QUOTE]

    Does Vietnam use our medications? I'm assuming they would have something specific for this strand.

    Is TB strands like the strand of HIV viruses? High density and promiscuous societies get a more virulent strand of that virus than those in low density and less promiscuous societies. One strand was more virulent because transmission was easier and allowed it to reproduce at higher rates.

  16. #16
    Veteran
    Charter JI Member

    Join Date
    May 1999
    Posts
    1,547
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=chicadeel]Andrew Speaker found out he had TB in January from a chest x-ray he had taken for a bruised rib. How long would it take to diagnose the type/strain of TB he had and know if he was contagious? I'm trying to figure out why it became such a priority to the CDC to quarantine him after he flew to Europe.[/QUOTE]

    I believe a blood test he had taken confirmed the type of strain he had, after he was already overseas. I believe the priority to quarantine him has more to do with the type of strain he has, one that is resistant to the usual antibiotics they use to treat TB, than his contagiousness. If he is indeed contagious, it would be low risk, mostly to those who are immunosuppressed. Hopefully that will be confirmed when they get the results from a sputum test he took in Denver.

  17. #17
    Veteran
    Charter JI Member

    Join Date
    May 1999
    Posts
    1,547
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=HDCentStOhio]He had spent extensive time in Vietnam, that is most likely where he got it. He has a resistant form apparently to many of the typically used medications, that is what is dangerous here.[/QUOTE]

    I agree, and I completely agree with all the precautions they are taking in this matter. I just wish the media would spend more time educating us viewers on this issue than scaring us.

    One of the college student passengers has told the media that people are now afraid to come in contact with him.

  18. #18
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Jan 2006
    Location
    Long Island & Section 337
    Posts
    4,859
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=finlee17]Does Vietnam use our medications? I'm assuming they would have something specific for this strand.

    Is TB strands like the strand of HIV viruses? High density and promiscuous societies get a more virulent strand of that virus than those in low density and less promiscuous societies. One strand was more virulent because transmission was easier and allowed it to reproduce at higher rates.[/QUOTE]
    TB is not a virus, but a mycobacteria. The problem is that resistance to various drugs have developed. This occurs for many reasons, including poor patient compliance. In developing countries, the public monitoring is not as extensive as here in the US. Patients may or may not take the medication as directed. If they only partially treat the infection, taking only some of the medication, resistance can develop. The TB bacterium has been exposed to the drug, but not to the extent it would completely kill the infection. The remaining bacterium then develop an immunity, for lack of a better word, to the strain.

    Typically most TB treatments start out with 4 drug therapy, which is then adjusted when it is established what drugs would be specifically effective on the strain in question. As you can imagine, without rigid monitoring it would be easy to not take 4 different drugs daily, thus promoting resistance.

    HIV prevalence and public sanitation standards are also issues which can increase the prevalence of drug resistant TB.

  19. #19
    Veteran
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Posts
    468
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=HDCentStOhio]TB is not a virus, but a mycobacteria. The problem is that resistance to various drugs have developed. This occurs for many reasons, including poor patient compliance. In developing countries, the public monitoring is not as extensive as here in the US. Patients may or may not take the medication as directed. If they only partially treat the infection, taking only some of the medication, resistance can develop. The TB bacterium has been exposed to the drug, but not to the extent it would completely kill the infection. The remaining bacterium then develop an immunity, for lack of a better word, to the strain.

    Typically most TB treatments start out with 4 drug therapy, which is then adjusted when it is established what drugs would be specifically effective on the strain in question. As you can imagine, without rigid monitoring it would be easy to not take 4 different drugs daily, thus promoting resistance.

    HIV prevalence and public sanitation standards are also issues which can increase the prevalence of drug resistant TB.[/QUOTE]

    Thanks, Ohio... but I knew TB was not a virus but a bacterium of some sorts. I was curious about different types of TB in different areas of the world. Viruses and diseases can be specific to certain cultures and may behave differently in somebody of a different culture.

    So, I didn't know if the resistance to the drugs was a medical or cultural issue. Or is this type of issue not relevant?

  20. #20
    Hall Of Fame
    Join Date
    Jan 2006
    Location
    Long Island & Section 337
    Posts
    4,859
    Post Thanks / Like
    [QUOTE=finlee17]Thanks, Ohio... but I knew TB was not a virus but a bacterium of some sorts. I was curious about different types of TB in different areas of the world. Viruses and diseases can be specific to certain cultures and may behave differently in somebody of a different culture.

    So, I didn't know if the resistance to the drugs was a medical or cultural issue. Or is this type of issue not relevant?[/QUOTE]
    Not sure what you are asking, but they are medical, with some cultural influence if you are talking about disease prevalence, public hygeine, and public health oversight.

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  

Follow Us