Individuals with conservative ideologies are happier than liberal-leaners, and new research pinpoints the reason: Conservatives rationalize social and economic inequalities.
Regardless of marital status, income or church attendance, right-wing individuals reported greater life satisfaction and well-being than left-wingers, the new study found. Conservatives also scored highest on measures of rationalization, which gauge a person's tendency to justify, or explain away, inequalities.
The rationalization measure included statements such as: "It is not really that big a problem if some people have more of a chance in life than others," and "This country would be better off if we worried less about how equal people are."
To justify economic inequalities, a person could support the idea of meritocracy, in which people supposedly move up their economic status in society based on hard work and good performance. In that way, one's social class attainment, whether upper, middle or lower, would be perceived as totally fair and justified.
If your beliefs don't justify gaps in status, you could be left frustrated and disheartened, according to the researchers, Jaime Napier and John Jost of New York University. They conducted a U.S.-centric survey and a more internationally focused one to arrive at the findings.
"Our research suggests that inequality takes a greater psychological toll on liberals than on conservatives," the researchers write in the June issue of the journal Psychological Science, "apparently because liberals lack ideological rationalizations that would help them frame inequality in a positive (or at least neutral) light."
The results support and further explain a Pew Research Center survey from 2006, in which 47 percent of conservative Republicans in the U.S. described themselves as "very happy," while only 28 percent of liberal Democrats indicated such cheer.
The same rationalizing phenomena could apply to personal situations as well.
"There is no reason to think that the effects we have identified here are unique to economic forms of inequality," the researchers write. "Research suggests that highly egalitarian women are less happy in their marriages compared with their more traditional counterparts, apparently because they are more troubled by disparities in domestic labor."
The current study was funded by the National Science Foundation.
I have to say, I find this type of research annoying. The researchers reflect a fairly apparent bias when they define the conservative viewpoint as "rationalizing" as if the liberal point of view is any less so. I strongly doubt that conservatives are unaware of, or in denial of "inequalities." They appraise the reasons for it differently -- attributing more importance to personal responsibility and less to societal injustice (that isn't rationalizing per se; it's merely a viewpoint). Also, conservatives may be happier because they are simply more successful on the whole economically than their liberal counterparts and more comfortable with the status quo. The guy who is empathizing with the plight of the poor typically feels some sense of disenfranchisement or marginalization himself. The main tendency that differentiates liberals from conservatives is that liberals tend to fear being exploited by those above them economically, while conservatives tend to fear being abused by those below them economically. Thus the liberal is obsessed with correcting injustice, income disparity, corporate corruption and abuse, and the conspiracy of the invisible elite; the conservative is busy looking over his shoulder, waiting for the undesirable homeless guy, or the unwashed immigrant, or the terrorist underground to rise up and take away his comforts or disrupt his safety, or the IRS to skim his kitty. The fact that one's politics is very often defined by one's socio-economic status and that it changes with the change in that variable across one's life is not a coincidence.