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Thread: Livers Created from Stem Cells

  1. #1
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    Livers Created from Stem Cells

    http://www.the-scientist.com/?articl...om-Stem-Cells/


    Amazing stuff

    IMHO, living for 100+ years is going to be the norm



    Livers Created from Stem Cells

    Scientists have made the first functional, vascularized livers from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Liver cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cultured with developmentally important progenitor cells self-organize into functional, three-dimensional liver buds, according to new research published today (July 3) in Nature. The liver buds exhibited metabolisms that, in some aspects, resembled that of human livers, the researchers found, and when transplanted into mice, the buds connected with the host circulatory system.

    “I think the quality of the work in the paper is very high,” said Stephen Duncan, the director of the Regenerative Medicine Center at the Medical College of Wisconsin, who did not participate in the research. “They got iPSCs to differentiate by adding cells that produce the right growth factors . . . and then the cells spontaneously formed these three-dimensional aggregates that were able to form a rudimentary vasculature.”

    There are currently more than 100,000 people around the globe with end-stage organ failure awaiting organ transplants. With no end to the shortage of organ donors in sight, scientists have for decades attempted to build organs for transplantation from the ground up. The discovery of embryonic stem cells in 1981 offered promise that custom-made organs could be grown in the lab. Later, the discovery of iPSCs offered the possibility of making organs from patient’s own undifferentiated cells, which would circumvent compatibility concerns.

    “If you could use iPSCs to generate a truly functioning organ, then you would have this unlimited suitcase of spare parts that would be genetically matched to individuals,” said Duncan.

    “Most researchers working on generating organs focus on one component: functional cell differentiation from human iPSCs,” said study lead Takanori Takebe, a regenerative medicine specialist at the Yokohama City University in Japan. “But that is not an efficient approach, so we established a new concept for three-dimensional organ generation.”

    During natural liver development, sheets of liver cells cleave off of gut endodermal cells—the cells that make up the innermost germ cell layer of the embryo—and form a liver bud, a mass of condensed tissue that quickly becomes vascularized. To recapitulate liver development, Takebe’s team cultured the human hepatocytes, or liver cells, derived from iPSCs with two other developmentally important cell types—human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells. Within 48 hours of combining these three cell types, the mass of liver cells self-organized into three-dimensional clusters and formed blood vessels.

    Microarray analyses of 83 genes known to be active during liver development also revealed that gene expression in the iPSC-derived liver buds was more similar to human fetal liver tissue than that of iPSC-derived hepatocytes created by other groups. However, Duncan expressed concern that the authors did not compare the gene expression profile of the liver buds with that of adult human liver tissue.

    “Because you don’t have that benchmark, it’s really difficult to know how much better these [liver bud] cells are [than previously created hepatocytes],” said Duncan.

    The researchers also found that the liver buds broke down certain drugs in a way that mirrored human metabolism. Furthermore, levels of human serum albumin—an important liver metabolite—produced by the transplanted liver buds were higher than those produced by other iPSC-derived hepatocytes.

    The albumin levels are “a good indication that you’ve got functional cells,” said Duncan, “but again, there’s no quantitative comparison with human cells.”

    In order to visualize how well the liver buds integrated with a host vasculature system, Takebe’s team transplanted the buds onto the brains of immunodeficient mice so they could view the tissue masses through a window implanted in the skull. Fluorescent imaging of the blood vessels within the liver bud revealed that the vessels formed unobstructed connections with the mice’s vasculature within 48 hours of transplantation.

    “[The study] is a technical achievement, and it may some day be applied to the clinic,” said Shay Soker, a bioengineer at the Wake Forest School of Medicine who did not participate in the research. But Soker is skeptical that the technique will scale up to create viable human livers. He said that although the team demonstrated vascularization in the liver buds, he is not convinced that the process would happen quickly enough in larger liver buds transplanted into humans before the organs died of oxygen starvation.

    “The most important step is to make a liver bud large enough to transplant into humans,” agreed Takebe. “Livers are composed of 10 to 100 billion hepatocytes. We need to establish a new kind of automated culture system to enable the production of a mass-scaled liver bud.”

    T. Takebe et al., “Vascularized and functional human liver from an iPSC-derived organ bud transplant,” Nature, doi:10.1038/nature12271, 2013.

  2. #2
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    Anyone really want to live to be a hundred? Where is the quality of life.

    If I can make it to hold a grandchild and smell that newborn scent in its hair... Walk to my own bed and check out peacefully....Im golden.

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    Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk

  3. #3
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    Quote Originally Posted by 32green View Post
    If I can make it to hold a grandchild and smell that newborn scent in its hair...
    Amniotic fluid?

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    Quote Originally Posted by FF2® View Post
    Amniotic fluid?
    No thanks. I'm good.

    -

  5. #5
    This is evil. Tim Tebow told me.

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    Quote Originally Posted by 32green View Post
    Anyone really want to live to be a hundred? Where is the quality of life.

    If I can make it to hold a grandchild and smell that newborn scent in its hair... Walk to my own bed and check out peacefully....Im golden.

    -


    Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk
    Same here. I only want to live as long as I can wipe my ass, take a shower on my own and have some sort of mobility/independence.

    This is great science b.c one day it will help children and young people that were born with bad parts and give them a shot at a normal life.

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    I'll take three

  8. #8
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    Quote Originally Posted by JetPotato View Post
    I'll take three
    get in line behind Ragu.

  9. #9
    Rather exagerated, hyperbole filled article title and response by OP.

    Liver cells somewhat like human liver cells have been created.

    Not Livers, ready for use.

    Lets keep this in perspective.

    I'm sure vat-grown-organs are in the future, of course, but they're not here yet.

  10. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Churchill View Post
    Rather exagerated, hyperbole filled article title and response by OP.

    Liver cells somewhat like human liver cells have been created.

    Not Livers, ready for use.

    Lets keep this in perspective.

    I'm sure vat-grown-organs are in the future, of course, but they're not here yet.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJ_R-G_i4Xk

  11. #11
    Quote Originally Posted by FF2® View Post
    Sorry if accuracy and factuality are downers.

  12. #12
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    Quote Originally Posted by Churchill View Post
    Rather exagerated, hyperbole filled article title and response by OP.

    Liver cells somewhat like human liver cells have been created.

    Not Livers, ready for use.

    Lets keep this in perspective.

    I'm sure vat-grown-organs are in the future, of course, but they're not here yet.
    Woody Allen said the brain was his second favorite organ.

  13. #13
    Quote Originally Posted by long island leprechaun View Post
    Woody Allen said the brain was his second favorite organ.
    Woody Allen is one of the least funny, least entertaining men in Hollywood history IMO. Over-rated doesn't even begin to cover him.

    And like so many in Hollywood, he too is a sexual deviant with a penchant for young children. Guess that makes him funnier?

  14. #14
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    Quote Originally Posted by Churchill View Post
    Sorry if accuracy and factuality are downers.
    Just kiddin wit ya bro.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Churchill View Post
    Woody Allen is one of the least funny, least entertaining men in Hollywood history IMO. Over-rated doesn't even begin to cover him.

    And like so many in Hollywood, he too is a sexual deviant with a penchant for young children. Guess that makes him funnier?
    OMG Fish, lighten up!

  16. #16
    Quote Originally Posted by FF2® View Post
    OMG Fish, lighten up!
    Cat. 1 (Hampur) = Fun Light Entertainment till I Get Banned for Booby Post'in...

    Cat. 2 (The Failstrip) = Fandom-Infused Fun, Slightly More Serious but Still Entertainment

    Cat. 3 (PoliSci) = Serious Internet Business

    Cat. 4 (Music/Filmtalk) = REALLY Serious Interweb Business

    Cat. 5 (Anyone/where Insulting Scotland) = Just don't.

    The Churchy Scale of E-Posting

  17. #17
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    I agree about Woody Allen. Grossly overrated.

    As for his personal life, he is a liberal so he gets a pass.

  18. #18
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    Quote Originally Posted by Churchill View Post
    Woody Allen is one of the least funny, least entertaining men in Hollywood history IMO. Over-rated doesn't even begin to cover him.

    And like so many in Hollywood, he too is a sexual deviant with a penchant for young children. Guess that makes him funnier?
    Okay, how about Emo Phillips... gotta find a laugh in there somewhere...


    EmoPhilips:



    A computeronce beat me at chess, but it was no match for me at kick boxing.

    At my lemonade stand I used togive the first glass away free and charge five dollars for the second glass.The refill contained the antidote.

    How many people here havetelekenetic powers? Raise my hand.

    I discovered my wife in bed with another man,and I was crushed. So I said, 'Get off me, you two!'

    I go from stool tostool in singles bars hoping to get lucky, but there's never any gum under anyof them.

    I got in a fight onetime with a really big guy, and he said, "I'm going to mop the floor withyour face." I said, "You'll be sorry." He said, "Oh, yeah?Why?" I said, "Well, you won't be able to get into the corners verywell."

    I got some newunderwear the other day. Well, new to me.

    I love to go down tothe schoolyard and watch all the little children jump up and down and runaround yelling and screaming. They don't know I'm only using blanks.

    I once had a largegay following, but I ducked into an alleyway and lost him.

    I once heard twoladies going on and on about the pains of childbirth and how men don't seem toknow what real pain is. I asked if either of them ever got themselves caught ina zipper.

    I was at a barnursing a beer. My nipple was getting quite soggy.

    I was sleeping theother night, alone, thanks to the exterminator.

    I was the kid nextdoor's imaginary friend.

    I was walking down fifth avenue todayand I found a wallet, and I was gonna keep it, rather than return it, but Ithought: well, if I lost a hundred and fifty dollars, how would I feel? And Irealized I would want to be taught a lesson.

    I was with this girlthe other night and from the way she was responding to my skillful caresses,you would have sworn that she was conscious from the top of her head to the tagon her toes.

    In our school you were searched for guns andknifes on the way in and if you didn't have any, they gave you some.

    My classmates wouldcopulate with anything that moved, but I never saw any reason to limit myself.

    Probably the toughesttime in anyone's life is when you have to murder a loved one because they'rethe devil.

    Some mornings it justdoesn't seem worth it to gnaw through the leather straps.

    Whatever happened tothe good ole days, when children worked in factories?

    When I was a kid I used to pray every night for anew bicycle. Then I realized that the Lord doesn't work that way so I stole oneand asked Him to forgive me.

    You know what I hate? Indian givers... no, Itake that back.


  19. #19
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    Quote Originally Posted by Churchill View Post
    Cat. 1 (Hampur) = Fun Light Entertainment till I Get Banned for Booby Post'in...

    Cat. 2 (The Failstrip) = Fandom-Infused Fun, Slightly More Serious but Still Entertainment

    Cat. 3 (PoliSci) = Serious Internet Business

    Cat. 4 (Music/Filmtalk) = REALLY Serious Interweb Business

    Cat. 5 (Anyone/where Insulting Scotland) = Just don't.

    The Churchy Scale of E-Posting
    Jock & Jimmy were walking along a street in London.
    Jock looked in one of the shop windows and saw a sign that caught his eye.
    The sign read, "Suits £5.00 each, Shirts £2.00 each, trousers £2.50 per pair".
    Jock said to his pal, "Look at the prices! We could buy a whole lot of these and when we get back to Scotland we could make a fortune.
    Now when we go in you stay quiet, okay? Let me do all the talking cause if they hear our accents, they might think we are cheap Scotsmen and try to screw us. I'll put on my best London accent".
    "OK Jock, I'll keep me mouth shut" said Jimmy
    They go in and Jock said in a posh voice, "Hello my good man. I'll take 50 suits at £5.00 each, 100 shirts at £2.00 each, and 50 pairs of trousers at £2.50 each. I'll back up me truck ready to load them on, old chap!
    The owner of the shop said quietly, "You're from Scotland, aren't you?"
    "Well yes," said a surprised Jock. "What gave it away?"
    The owner replied, "This is a dry-cleaners........" !

  20. #20
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    Good news for me

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